Gnosticism (from Ancient Greek: γνωστικός, romanized:gnōstikós, Koine Greek:[ɣnostiˈkos], ‘having knowledge’) is a collection of religious ideas and systems that coalesced in the late 1st century AD among Jewish and early Christian sects. These various groups emphasized personal spiritual knowledge (gnosis) above the proto-orthodox teachings, traditions, and authority of religious institutions. Gnostic cosmogony generally presents a distinction between a supreme, hidden God and a malevolent lesser divinity